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东北和西北春玉米氮磷钾养分吸收、积累特点比较
Comparison of the characteristics of N, P and K uptake and transport in Spring Maize between Northeast and Northwest of China
投稿时间:2017-12-07  最后修改时间:2018-03-18
中文关键词:关键词:春玉米、生态区、干物质、养分吸收量、养分利用效率
英文关键词:Key words: Spring maize:Ecoregions: Dry matter: Nutrient absorption:NUE
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
作者单位E-mail
侯慧杰 石河子大学农学院 houhuijie163@163.com 
范盼盼 中国农业科学院  
邹楠 石河子大学农学院  
谢瑞芝 中国农业科学院  
王克如 中国农业科学院  
肖春花 石河子大学农学院  
李少昆 中国农业科学院  
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中文摘要:
      摘要:玉米的物质积累和产量形成受生态条件的影响,氮磷钾等养分的吸收和积累也会存在区域差异,本研究通过东北(吉林公主岭,简写JL-GZL)和西北(新疆伊犁71团,简写XJ-71)两个生态条件差异明显的大田试验,比较不同生态区春玉米植株养分吸收、积累差异。研究表明:西北试点的春玉米籽粒产量、干物质积累量、氮磷钾等养分积累量均高于东北,其中籽粒产量、干物质积累量达到了极显著水平,叶片、茎秆、籽粒氮、磷、钾养分积累量均达到了显著水平,而氮磷钾等主要养分的含量则不完全相同:东北春玉米叶片、茎秆氮含量较西北高,叶片、茎秆磷含量无显著性差异,叶片、茎秆钾含量在整个生育期低于西北。分析还发现,西北春玉米每吸收1kg氮所产生的籽粒、干物质分别较东北高7.75%、7.11%,但每吸收1kg钾所产生的籽粒、干物质分别较东北低9.12%、9.71%,而每1kg磷所产生的籽粒、干物质两生态区无显著性差异。氮磷钾的收获指数与养分利用效率的变化趋势相同:西北试点氮收获指数高于东北,钾收获指数低于东北,磷收获指数无显著性差异。研究结果为不同生态条件下的养分供应技术提供了帮助。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: The material accumulation and development of yield were influenced by the ecological condition. There were some regional differences among the uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The studies were in the two ecological fields--- the Northeast (Gongzhuling, Jilin province, abbreviated JL-GZL) and Northwest (Yili 71 regiment, Xinjiang province, abbreviated XJ-71), and compared the uptake and accumulation of nutrient in maize plants in the two experimental regions. The study shows that the grain yield of spring maize, dry matter accumulation, and accumulation of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium nutrients, were higher than those in the Northeast. Specifically, the grain yield and dry matter accumulation reached a significant level(0.01); leaves, stems and the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in grain also reached a significant level(0.05); while, the main nutrient content of nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium in maize plants were not exactly the same---Compared with Northwest, the nitrogen content in leaves and stems in Northeast were higher, whereas there was no significant difference between the phosphorus content of leaves, stems, and the content of potassium in leaves and stems was lower than the Northwest in the whole period. The analysis also found that the spring maize in Northwest absorption 1kg nitrogen produced the grain and dry matter were higher than the Northeast, 7.11% and 7.75% respectively, but the production of grain(9.12%) and dry matter(9.71%) were lower than the Northeast by absorption 1kg potassium , and there was no difference between two regions in absorption 1kg phosphorus. The harvest index of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium had the same trend with the efficiency of nutrient using: the nitrogen harvest index in Northwest was higher than that in the Northeast, while, the potassium harvest index was lower than that in Northeast, and there was no significant difference in phosphorus harvest index. The research results provide technical support for nutrient supply under different ecological conditions.
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