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高温胁迫对玉米形态、叶片结构及其产量的影响
Effect of High Temperature Stress on Morphology, Leaf Structure and Yield of Maize
投稿时间:2018-01-20  最后修改时间:2018-01-20
中文关键词:玉米  高温胁迫  形态  叶片结构  产量
英文关键词:Maize  High temperature stress  Morphology  Leaf structure  Yield
基金项目:国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项经费项目(201203029),郑州市科技计划项目(131PPTGG413-4)作者简介付 景(1982-),女,河南南阳人,博士,助理研究员,主要从事作物栽培生理与生理生态研究。E-mail:fujing8210@sina.cn刘天学为本文通讯作者。E-mail:tianxueliu2005@163.com
作者单位邮编
付 景 河南农业大学农学院/河南粮食作物协同创新中心/小麦玉米作物学国家重点实验室 河南省农业科学院粮食作物研究所 450002
孙宁宁 河南农业大学农学院/河南粮食作物协同创新中心/小麦玉米作物学国家重点实验室 
刘天学 河南农业大学农学院/河南粮食作物协同创新中心/小麦玉米作物学国家重点实验室 450002
杨豫龙 河南农业大学农学院/河南粮食作物协同创新中心/小麦玉米作物学国家重点实验室 
赵 霞 河南省农业科学院粮食作物研究所 
李潮海 河南农业大学农学院/河南粮食作物协同创新中心/小麦玉米作物学国家重点实验室 
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中文摘要:
      以郑单958(ZD958)和先玉335(XY335)为试验材料,模拟增温处理,探索营养生长和生殖生长并进时期(第9片叶完全展开至抽雄期)高温处理对玉米形态、叶片结构及其产量的影响。结果表明,高温处理后ZD958和XY335的产量分别比对照降低了11.14%和25.40%。高温处理促进株高增长,促使茎粗变细,降低了叶面积指数、干物质重、成熟叶片和幼嫩叶片的比叶重。随生育进程XY335的株高、茎粗、叶面积指数、干物质重和ZD958的干物质重变化幅度逐渐增大,2个玉米品种的幼嫩叶片比叶重降低幅度均要大于成熟叶片比叶重。叶片厚度和上下表皮细胞厚度变薄,叶绿体膜结构被破坏,抑制光合作用及光合产物的输出。对高温胁迫的敏感性而言,XY335大于ZD958,ZD958成熟叶大于幼嫩叶,XY335幼嫩叶大于成熟叶。
英文摘要:
      A field experiment of artificial warming was conducted with two maize cultivars ZD958 and XY335 to explore the effects of high temperature treatment on the morphology, leaf structure and yield of maize during the period of vegetative and reproductive growth (the ninth leaf was fully unfolded to the tasselling stage). The results showed that the yields of ZD958 and XY335 decreased by 11.14% and 25.40% compared with the control, respectively. High temperature treatment promoted the growth of plant height, caused the stems to become thinner, and reduced leaf area index, dry matter weight, the specific leaf weight of mature leaves and young leaves. The change of plant height, stem diameter, leaf area index, dry matter weight of XY335 and dry matter weight of ZD958 gradually increased with the growth process, the specific leaf weight of young leaves had lower than that of mature leaves of two maize cultivars. The thickness of leaf and the thickness of upper and lower epidermal cells became thinner, chloroplast membrane structure was destroyed, inhibiting photosynthesis and photosynthetic output. In terms of sensitivity to high temperature stress, XY335 was greater than ZD958, the mature leaves were larger than the young leaves of ZD958, the young leaves were larger than the mature leaves of XY335.
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