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寒地不同玉米品种影响机收质量关键因素研究
Study on the Key Factors Affecting the Quality of Maize Harvest in Different Cold Regions
投稿时间:2018-01-20  最后修改时间:2018-05-10
中文关键词:玉米  籽粒直收  籽粒直收质量  籽粒含水率  破碎率
英文关键词:Maize  direct harvest of mechanical grain  quality of harvest  water content  crushing rate
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YHD0300502)、黑龙江八一农垦大学博士启动基金校启(DB2011-16)、国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD23B05-04)、黑龙江省现代农业产业技术协同创新体系
作者单位E-mail
庞晨 黑龙江八一农垦大学 1536896833@qq.com 
杨克军 黑龙江八一农垦大学 byndykj@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为研究寒地玉米籽粒机收质量的现状和影响玉米籽粒直收质量的关键因素。于2016年选用本地区主栽的30个品种,开展玉米籽粒直收试验。分析了当前寒地不同玉米品种籽粒直收质量并研究了不同品种籽粒直收产量损失与含水率、破碎率、杂质率、落穗损失、落粒损失的关系。结果表明,供试品种收获平均籽粒含水率26.88%,机收破碎率平均为5.24%,杂质率为0.96%,产量损失率为5.20%,其中落穗损失平均为4.39%,落粒损失平均为0.47%。破碎率和产量损失率偏高是当前寒地玉米籽粒直收主要问题;各因素相关分析结果表明,含水率与破碎率呈极显著正相关,其中破碎率(y)与籽粒含水率(x)符合一元一次方程y=0.2688x-1.9794(R2=0.4395**,n=90)。综合分析,寒地玉米机收粒破碎率偏高,籽粒含水率高是主要原因。对此,寒地玉米宜机收品种应具有早熟、收获籽粒含水率低,脱水快且稳产的特性。
英文摘要:
      In order to define the quality of maize grain harvest in cold area, the key factors affecting the quality of maize grain collection were established. In 2016, 30 maize varieties with larger area were selected to carry out mechanical direct harvest test. The present situation of grain straight harvest quality of Different Maize Varieties in cold land and the relationship between grain water content and crushing rate, impurity rate, drop rate, falling grain rate and yield loss rate were analyzed. The results show that the average crushing rate is 5.24%, the impurity rate is 0.96%, the yield loss rate is 5.20%, of which the loss of the falling head is 4.39% and the falling grain loss is 0.47%. The high crushing rate and high yield loss rate are the main problems of maize direct harvest in the cold area, and the Syngenta 408 is selected as the harvest variety. The average grain moisture content of the harvest was 26.88%. The water content has a very significant positive correlation with the crushing rate, in which the breaking rate (y) and the grain water content (x) are in accordance with the first order equation y=0.2688x-1.9794 (R2=0.4395**, n=90). Comprehensive analysis showed that the breaking rate of corn harvester in cold area was high, and the high moisture content of grain was the main reason. For this reason, the maize varieties suitable for harvesting in cold areas should have the characteristics of early maturity, low moisture content of harvested seeds, fast and stable dehydration.
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