| In order to define the quality of maize grain harvest in cold area, the key factors affecting the quality of maize grain collection were established. In 2016, 30 maize varieties with larger area were selected to carry out mechanical direct harvest test. The present situation of grain straight harvest quality of Different Maize Varieties in cold land and the relationship between grain water content and crushing rate, impurity rate, drop rate, falling grain rate and yield loss rate were analyzed. The results show that the average crushing rate is 5.24%, the impurity rate is 0.96%, the yield loss rate is 5.20%, of which the loss of the falling head is 4.39% and the falling grain loss is 0.47%. The high crushing rate and high yield loss rate are the main problems of maize direct harvest in the cold area, and the Syngenta 408 is selected as the harvest variety. The average grain moisture content of the harvest was 26.88%. The water content has a very significant positive correlation with the crushing rate, in which the breaking rate (y) and the grain water content (x) are in accordance with the first order equation y=0.2688x-1.9794 (R2=0.4395**, n=90). Comprehensive analysis showed that the breaking rate of corn harvester in cold area was high, and the high moisture content of grain was the main reason. For this reason, the maize varieties suitable for harvesting in cold areas should have the characteristics of early maturity, low moisture content of harvested seeds, fast and stable dehydration.