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有机肥部分替代氮肥土壤硝态氮动态变化特征及玉米产量效应研究
Effects of organic manure partial substitution for nitrogen fertilizer on the dynamic change characteristics of soil nitrate nitrogen and the maize yield effect
投稿时间:2018-03-07  最后修改时间:2018-05-03
中文关键词:等养分量  有机肥替代  土壤硝态氮  产量
英文关键词:equal nutrient component  organic fertilizer substitution  soil nitrate nitrogen  yield
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
黄志浩 吉林农业大学资源与环境学院 hzhck1002@163.com 
曹国军 吉林农业大学资源与环境学院 cgj72@126.com 
耿玉辉 吉林农业大学资源与环境学院  
潘京洲 吉林省农业技术推广总站  
邢伟明 吉林省农业技术推广总站  
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中文摘要:
      【目的】探讨不同有机肥部分替代化肥,玉米不同生育期0-100cm土层硝态氮含量动态变化及对玉米产量的影响。【方法】通过田间试验,在氮磷钾等养分量(N 240kg/hm2,P2O5 100 kg/hm2,K2O 100 kg/hm2)条件下,研究牛粪、鸡粪、猪粪替代25%化肥氮和秸秆全量还田配施化肥,对0-100cm土层硝态氮淋溶和积累及玉米产量构成的影响。【结果】秸秆全量还田配施化肥、牛粪替代25%化肥氮土壤硝态氮淋溶作用较小,完熟期0-40cm土层硝态氮累积量分别为86.2 kg/hm2和73.1kg/hm2,均显著高于其他有机肥替代化肥处理;习惯施肥、鸡粪替代25%化肥氮、猪粪替代25%化肥氮土壤硝态氮淋溶较强,完熟期均迁移到40cm土层以下,其中习惯施肥淋溶最强,0-40cm土层硝态氮累积量分别为54.2 kg/hm2、65.4kg/hm2、68.5kg/hm2。鸡粪替代25%化肥氮玉米产量最高,为13616.9kg/hm2,比习惯施肥增产13.6%,与其他有机肥替代化肥处理产量差异均达到显著水平。【结论】在等养分量条件下,有机肥替代25%化肥氮及秸秆全量还田配施化肥均可增加0-40cm土层硝态氮累积量,减少淋溶损失,其中秸秆全量还田配施化肥淋溶损失最小,鸡粪替代25%化肥氮可显著提高玉米产量。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】Discussion on dynamic changes of nitrate nitrogen content in 0-100cm soil with different organic fertilizer partial alternatives to corn and their effects on maize yield.【Method】Under the condition of equal N, P and K (N 240 kg/hm2, P2O5 100 kg/hm2, K2O 100 kg /hm2), a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of cow muck, chicken manure, pig manure 25% substitution for nitrogen and straw full amount returning combined with chemical fertilizer application on 0-100 cm soil NO3-1-N leaching and accumulation and the impact of maize yield components.【Result】The nitrate leaching of straw full amount returning combine with fertilizer, cow dung substitute for 25% nitrogen soil NO3-1-N was small, the NO3-1-N accumulation amount in 0-40 cm soil were 86.2 kg/hm2 and 73.1 kg/hm2 respectively at maturity, which were significantly higher than the other treatments of organic fertilizer substitution for chemical fertilizer. The nitrate N leaching amount of customary fertilization was the highest (68.5 kg/hm2) compare with the other treatments. The yield of chicken manure instead of 25% nitrogen was the highest (13616.9 kg/hm2), which was 13.6% higher than that of the conventional fertilizers, and was significant difference compared with the other treatments. 【Conclusion】Under the condition of equal nutrient, organic fertilizer instead of 25% amount of nitrogen fertilizer and straw full amount returning combine with fertilizer can increase NO3-N accumulation amount in 0-40 cm soil, reducing the leaching loss of nitrate, the nitrate leaching loss of straw full amount returning combine with fertilizer was the smallest, and chicken manure instead of 25% nitrogen fertilizer can significantly increase maize yield.
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