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氮肥后移对春玉米产量、氮素吸收利用及土壤氮素供应的影响
Effect of Postponing Nitrogen Application on Yield, Nitrogen Absorption and Utilization, Soil Nitrogen Supply of Spring Maize
投稿时间:2018-03-19  最后修改时间:2018-04-30
中文关键词:氮肥后移  春玉米  产量  氮素利用效率  土壤无机氮含量
英文关键词:Postponing Nitrogen application  Spring maize  Yield  Nitrogen utilization efficiency  Soil inorganic nitrogen content
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0300604)、国际植物营养研究所( IPNI) 项目(NMBF-Jilin-2018)资助、吉林省科技基础条件与平台建设计划(20160623030TC)
作者单位E-mail
侯云鹏 1.农业部东北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室 exceedfhvfha@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      摘 要: 为探求春玉米生产中氮肥合理施用问题, 采用田间试验研究了氮肥后移对春玉米产量、氮素吸收利用、土壤无机氮含量动态变化和氮素平衡的影响。结果表明, 氮肥后移各处理玉米产量均显著高于100%基肥处理, 提高幅度分别为27.0%-51.8%(2105年)和37.9%-69.4%(2016年), 其中30%基肥+50%拔节肥+20%开花肥处理玉米产量最高; 与100%基肥处理相比, 氮肥后移各处理氮素吸收利用率、农学利用率、偏生产力和生理利用率依次提高了35.8%-49.6%、46.1%-92.2%、9.8%-19.5%、9.4%-24.8%(2015年)和42.8%-64.2%、51.1%-83.0%、14.3%-22.9%、6.8%-11.7%(2016年), 差异均达显著水平, 且均以30%基肥+50%拔节肥+20%开花肥处理效果最佳。与100%基肥处理相比, 氮肥后移各处理在提高玉米开花期至成熟期0-40 cm土壤无机氮含量的同时, 降低了玉米收获后40-100 cm土壤无机氮含量; 相关分析结果表明, 玉米开花期至成熟期0-20 cm和20-40 cm土壤无机氮(硝态氮+铵态氮)与玉米产量、吸氮总量和氮素利用效率均呈显著或极显著正相关。氮素平衡计算结果表明, 氮肥后移各处理显著提高了玉米氮素携出量和土壤无机氮残留量, 并降低了土壤氮素表观损失, 其中30%基肥+50%拔节肥+20%开花肥处理氮素表观损失量最低。综上所述, 在总施氮量210 kg/hm2条件下, 30%基肥+50%拔节肥+20%开花肥为该区域较好的氮肥运筹模式。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: To perform the problem of reasonable application of fertilizer application on spring maize, field experiment was conducted to study the effects of postponing nitrogen application on yield, nitrogen absorption and utilization, the dynamic changes of soil inorganic nitrogen and nitrogen balance of spring maize. The result showed that postponing nitrogen application increased maize yield significantly by 27.0%-51.8% (2105) and 37.9%-69.4% (2016) compared with 100% basal fertilizer, and the highest maize yield was applied 30% nitrogen as basal fertilizer, 50% nitrogen as jointing fertilizer and 20% nitrogen as flowering fertilizer. Compared with 100% basal fertilizer, nitrogen absorption utilization, agronomic efficiency, partial factor productivity and physiological efficiency increased by 35.8%-49.6%, 46.1%-92.2%, 9.8%-19.5%, 9.4%-24.8% (2015) and 42.8%-64.2%, 51.1%-83.0%, 14.3%-22.9%, 6.8%-11.7% (2016) significantly under the postponing nitrogen application, and they were the highest levels at 30% nitrogen as basal fertilizer, 50% nitrogen as jointing fertilizer and 20% nitrogen as flowering fertilizer. Postponing nitrogen application increased inorganic nitrogen content at 0-40 cm soil from flowering stage to maturing stage and decreased inorganic nitrogen content at 40-100 cm soil after harvesting than 100% basal fertilizer. Correlation analysis showed that inorganic nitrogen (nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen) at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil from flowering stage to maturing stage had significantly or extremely significantly positive correlations with maize yield, the total nitrogen absorption and nitrogen utilization efficiency. The results of nitrogen balance calculation showed that postponing nitrogen application improved maize nitrogen output and the residual of soil inorganic nitrogen significantly and decreased apparent nitrogen losses in soil, and the lowest apparent nitrogen loss was at 30% nitrogen as basal fertilizer, 50% nitrogen as jointing fertilizer and 20% nitrogen as flowering fertilizer. Therefore, the optimum nitrogen fertilizer management was obtained by 30% nitrogen as basal fertilizer, 50% nitrogen as jointing fertilizer and 20% nitrogen as flowering fertilizer at 210 kg/hm2 of nitrogen fertilizer under the condition of this experiment.
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