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机械—劳动完全替代视角下的节本技术与制度选择——来自中美玉米成本结构对比的启示
Cost Saving Technology and Institutional Choice under the Perfect Substitutability of Machinery to Labor——A Comparison of Maize Production Cost between China and U.S.A.
投稿时间:2018-04-25  最后修改时间:2018-05-28
中文关键词:成本结构  机械-劳动完全替代  节约成本  技术与制度选择
英文关键词:Cost Structure  Perfect Substitutability of Machinery to Labor  Cost Saving  Technology and Institutional Choice
基金项目:国家玉米产业技术体系项目“玉米产业经济与政策研究”(项目编号:NYCYTX-02),国家社会科学基金(14ZDA038)、国家自然科学基金(71573133)
作者单位E-mail
徐志刚 南京农业大学经济管理学院 zgxu@njau.edu.cn 
刘静 南京农业大学经济管理学院 2017106060@njau.edu.cn 
张宗利 南京农业大学经济管理学院  
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中文摘要:
      近年来,我国玉米市场竞争力下降和进口压力上升引起了政府的高度重视和学术界的广泛关注。本文通过对中美玉米生产成本与结构的系统比较,发现我国玉米竞争力低下、单位产品成本高且持续上升的主要原因是,人工成本居高不下,机械化没有实现机械对劳动的完全替代。因此,通过发展全程机械化和管理性服务实质性减少人工投入数量是降低生产成本的可行方案。最后,提出了优化玉米科技研发方向,促进全程机械化连片作业、发展管理性服务组织等玉米生产节本技术与相关制度选择的建议。
英文摘要:
      In recent years, the competitiveness declining and import pressure rising in corn market have attracted great attention of the government and academia. In this paper, through the systematic comparison of corn production cost and cost structure between China and the United States, it is found that the main reason of low competitiveness and the high unit product cost is mainly due to the high labor cost and the failure to achieve perfect substitutability of machinery to labor. Therefore, it is a feasible solution to reduce production costs by developing full mechanization and management services to substantially reduce the number of manual inputs. Finally, we put forward proposals for corn production cost-saving technology and related institutional options, such as optimizing corn technology R D direction, promoting full mechanized contiguous operations, and developing management service organizations.
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