• 首页期刊简介获奖情况征稿简则刊登广告欢迎订阅联系我们网通电信
玉米受精和早期籽粒发育过程及逆境胁迫对其影响
Maize Fertilization and Early Stage of Seed Development and Impacts on them Exposed to Stresses
投稿时间:2018-12-16  修订日期:2019-03-16
中文关键词:玉米受精  籽粒建成    逆境胁迫  碳水化合物  激素
英文关键词:maize fertilization  seed?setting  embryo  abiotic stress  carbohydrates  hormone
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
作者单位邮编
李叶蓓 中国农业大学 100193
刘希伟 中国农业大学 
张炳超 中国农业大学 
黄收兵 中国农业大学 
王璞 中国农业大学 
摘要点击次数: 56
全文下载次数: 0
中文摘要:
      玉米受精及籽粒发育早期是决定穗粒数及粒重的重要时期,也是对环境变化相对较敏感的阶段。玉米受精包括成熟花粉粒的散落、花粉与花丝的识别、花粉管在花丝传输束中的延伸、精细胞在卵器中的释放及精细胞与卵细胞和中央极核的结合5个过程。受精极核需要经历游离核、细胞化和细胞分化三个阶段形成胚乳,受精卵同样需要一系列的分裂分化形成最终的胚。玉米受精前极易遭受不良环境的影响,导致性器官发育不正常,影响花粉或花丝活力间接影响玉米受精过程;受精过程中的环境胁迫会通过阻碍花粉与花丝的识别,减缓花粉管在花丝中的延伸速率影响受精过程。籽粒发育早期主要是受精极核分裂分化形成胚乳,受精卵分裂分化形成胚的过程,该阶段遭受环境胁迫下,胚乳细胞分裂受阻影响籽粒库容。大量研究表明,逆境胁迫条件下,玉米的受精及籽粒早期发育过程与碳水化合物的代谢以及激素的合成密切相关。
英文摘要:
      The stages of fertilization and early grain development are important for determining maize grain number and grain weight, and the periods are sensitive to environmental changes. The maize fertilization consists of 5 processes, including the dispersal of mature pollen, the identification of pollen and filaments, the pollen tube extension in transmitting tract, the release of spermatocyte from eggs and the combination of spermatocyte between eggs and central polar nucleus. The fertilized polar nucleus needs to undergo free?nuclear?phase, cellularized and cell differentiation to form the endosperm, and the fertilized eggs also need a series of division and differentiation to form embryo. The previous period of fertilization is sensitive to the adverse environment, the maize form the abnormal sexual organs under stresses, meanwhile, affecting the pollen and silk vigor fertilization process. The stresses happened in the fertilization process mainly hinder the identification of pollen and flower silk and slow down pollen tube extension rate in the filament. At the early stage of grain development, the fertilization polar nuclei and fertilization eggs are divided and differentiated to form the endosperm and embryo, respectively, suffer the adverse environment will decrease grain storage capacity by hindering the endosperm cell division. A large number of researches have also shown that stresses affect maize fertilization and early grain development through influencing the carbohydrate metabolism and hormone synthesis.
  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器