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不同农学管理方式对玉米产量及群体光合特性的影响
Yield and photosynthetic characteristics of spring maize under different agronomic management conditions
投稿时间:2019-03-12  修订日期:2019-07-06
中文关键词:春玉米  产量  光合效率  密度  养分管理  深松
英文关键词:spring maize  yield  density  nutrient management  subsoiling
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0300602);吉林省农业科技创新工程(CXGC2017ZD001);吉林省科技厅重点研发项目(20180201077NY);吉林省人才开发资金项目资助
作者单位E-mail
展文洁 吉林农业大学 17854266737@163.com 
刘剑钊 吉林省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所/农业部东北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室  
梁尧 吉林省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所/农业部东北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室  
袁静超 吉林省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所/农业部东北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室  
张洪喜 吉林省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所/农业部东北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室  
蔡红光 吉林省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所/农业部东北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室 caihongguang1981@163.com 
任军 吉林省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所/农业部东北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室  
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中文摘要:
      【目的】旨在探讨不同农学管理模式对玉米产量及其构成、干物质积累与分配、养分吸收利用效率和光合特性的影响,为实现玉米丰产高效栽培提供理论指导。【方法】以先玉335为试验材料,对种植密度、土壤耕作、肥料施用等农艺措施进行优化组合。设置了农户栽培(CK)、优化管理模式1(Opt-1)、优化管理模式2(Opt-2)、优化管理模式3(Opt-3)等4种农学管理模式,比较分析不同农学管理模式下玉米的产量及构成因素、干物质积累与分配、养分吸收利用特征及光合特性。【结果】Opt-1、Opt-2、Opt-3处理两年的平均产量分别较对照提高了25.7%、48.9%、44.5%,影响产量的主要构成因素是收获穗数。Opt-1、Opt-2、Opt-3处理下群体生物量分别比CK处理增加9.5%、37.2%、16.3%。Opt-2处理氮肥用量为300kg/hm2,比Opt-3处理高出33.3%,但其子粒养分积累量与Opt-3处理无显著差异,且其肥料偏生产力与CK处理无显著差异。Opt-3处理下开花期叶面积指数(LAI)较高且花后LAI下降速率减缓,净光合速率和气孔导度分别较CK增加22.0%和5.6%,且与Opt1处理差异显著,生育后期叶片抗衰老能力显著提高,且Opt-3处理种植密度增加到7.0万株/hm2,进一步增强了玉米叶片的光合性能。【结论】通过合理密植、施肥方式和耕作方式的集成优化,可显著增加玉米群体干物质,提高养分积累量,叶片光合性能显著增加,进而大幅度同步提高玉米产量和养分利用效率。
英文摘要:
      【Objectives】The objective of this study was to investigate a agronomic management mode which could coordinately increase both grain yield and nutrient use efficiency of maize. 【Methods】A maize cultivar, XY335, was used as tested material in a field experiment. Four agronomic management modes were tested: Local agronomic cultivation(CK), Optimize management mode 1 (Opt-1),Optimize management mode 2 (Opt-2),Optimize management mode 3 (Opt-3). Analyze the characteristics of grain yield formation under different cultivation patterns and their nutrient absorption and utilization efficiencies. 【Result】The results showed that the average yields of Opt-1, Opt-2, Opt-3 were 25.7%, 49.0%, 44.5% higher than the CK. The main factor affecting yield was the number of ears harvested. The total dry weight of Opt-1, Opt-2, Opt-3 were 9.5%, 37.2%, 16.3% higher than the CK. Opt-2’s nitrogen content is 300kg/hm2, 33.3% higher than Opt-3. However, its grain nutrient accumulation was not significantly higher than opt-3,and there was no significant difference between its fertilizer partial productivity and CK treatment. Under opt-3 treatment, leaf area index (LAI) at flowering stage was higher and LAI decline rate after flowering was slowed down. Net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were increased by 22.0% and 5.6% respectively compared with CK. In addition, opt-3 treatment increased the planting density to 7.0 million plants /hm2, which further enhanced the photosynthetic performance of maize leaves.【Conclusion】The results indicated that higher grain yield and higher nutrient use efficiency can be coordinately achieved through integrating and optimizing cultivation techniques in maize production.
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