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长江中游南部春玉米籽粒不同阶段脱水规律研究
Study on the Grain Dehydration Regularity of Spring Maize in the South Area of Middle Reaches of Yangtze River
投稿时间:2019-05-15  修订日期:2019-08-04
中文关键词:玉米籽粒  脱水阶段  脱水速率  灌浆  气象因子
英文关键词:Maize grain  Dehydration stage  Dehydration rate  Grain filling  Meteorological factors
基金项目:国家重点研发计划 (2016YFD0300308,2016YFD0300109),国家玉米产业技术体系项目(CARS-02-75)
作者单位E-mail
曹钟洋 湖南省作物研究所 caozy66@aliyun.com 
汤彬 湖南省作物研究所  
郭欢乐 湖南省作物研究所  
陈松林 湖南省作物研究所  
陈志辉 湖南省作物研究所  
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中文摘要:
      本研究利用长江中游南部玉米籽粒后期脱水的高温环境,探讨脱水速率不同的品种在不同阶段特别是后期籽粒脱水的特征及差异,以期为选育、筛选脱水快的玉米品种提供理论指导。2018年在长沙以脱水速率不同的3 个品种先玉335(XY335)、登海605(DH605)和郑单 958(ZD958)为材料,春季分3个播期种植,分析不同阶段玉米籽粒脱水特征以及籽粒脱水与灌浆、气象因子的关系。结果显示,3个品种在3个播期的籽粒脱水速率均表现为先上升后下降,后期又快速上升。后期快速升高的起点前后籽粒脱水速率呈现不同的特征。将后期籽粒脱水速率快速上升的起点作为分隔点,前期为T1阶段,后期为T2阶段。T1阶段,籽粒脱水速率与灌浆速率极显著正相关(r=0.845**),与各气象因子无显著相关关系,表现生理脱水特征;T2阶段,籽粒脱水速率与温度相关的气象因子及平均日照时数显著正相关,与降雨量显著负相关,表现净脱水特征。籽粒脱水速率品种间差异主要体现在后期:ⅰ.XY335、DH605后期脱水速率高于ZD958;ⅱ.以籽粒含水率为评价尺度时,XY335、DH605后期脱水速率快速升高的时间早于ZD958。结果表明玉米籽粒后期脱水速率受品种基因型与气象因子的影响,收获时含水率低的品种具有后期快速脱水启动早,脱水速率更快的特征。
英文摘要:
      In this study, the high temperature environment at the late stage of maize grain?dehydration in the South Area of Middle Reaches of Yangtze River was used to explore the characteristics of different stages of dehydration rate of maize cultivars with different dehydration rates , especially in the later stage, in order to provide theoretical guidance for breeding and screening maize varieties with fast dehydration. In 2018, three varieties of Xianyu 335 (XY335), Denghai 605 (DH605) and Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) with different dehydration rates were used as materials, planted in Changsha on three sowing dates. The characteristics of dehydration of maize grain at different stages and the relationship between grain dehydration and filling and meteorological factors were analyzed. The results showed that the dehydration rates of the three varieties sown at three different times all increased firstly and then decreased, further followed a rapid increase/rise at the later stage. The rate of grain dehydration before and after the rapid rise of the late stage showed different characteristics. We took the starting point of the rapid increase of the grain dehydration rate in the later period as the separation point, the early stage was the T1 stage, and the later stage was the T2 stage. At the T1 stage, the grain dehydration rate was significantly positively correlated with the grain filling rate (r=0.845**), but no significant correlation with meteorological factors, showing physiological dehydration characteristics; T2 stage, grain dehydration rate were significantly positively correlated with temperature-related meteorological factors and average sunshine hours, and significantly negatively correlated with rainfall, showing net dehydration characteristic. The difference of grain dehydration rate among varieties was mainly reflected at the later stage: i.The grain dehydration rate of XY335 and DH605 were higher than ZD958 at the later stage; ii. When the grain moisture content was used as the evaluation scale, the dehydration rate of XY335 and DH605 increased rapidly earlier than ZD958 at the late stage. The results showed that grain dehydration rate of maize at the later stage was affected by genotype and meteorological factors, the varieties with low moisture content at harvest stage had the characteristics of earlier rapid dehydration and faster dehydration at the later stage.
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