禾谷镰孢引起的玉米茎腐病会导致玉米的产量锐减，筛选高效的拮抗菌株对防治玉米茎腐病尤为重要。采用稀释培养法从土壤中分离得到810株细菌，通过平板对峙法和16S rDNA分子测序方法进行拮抗菌的筛选和分子鉴定。共分离出禾谷镰孢拮抗菌23株，占分离细菌总数的2.84%，抑菌圈直径10.12-27.56mm。拮抗细菌主要分布在厚壁菌门（Firmicutes）、变形菌门（Proteobacteria）和放线菌门（Actinobacteria）3个门及芽孢杆菌属（Bacillus）、假单胞菌属（Pseudomonas）、链霉菌属（Streptomyces）、不动杆菌属（Acinetobacter）和节杆菌属（Arthrobacter）5个属中，其中芽孢杆菌属细菌数量最多且拮抗能力较强，而暹罗芽孢杆菌（Bacillus siamensis）的拮抗活性最强，具有较大的生防潜力，值得进一步挖掘。实验分离的23株菌株对禾谷镰孢有较好的拮抗活性，在玉米茎腐病防控中具有潜在的应用价值。
Corn stalk rot caused by Fusarium graminearum can lead to serious yield reduction of maize. Screening efficient antagonistic strains is particularly important for controlling corn stalk rot. 810 strains of bacteria were isolated from soil by dilution culture method. Antagonistic bacteria were screened by plate confrontation method, and their molecular identification was conducted through 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A total of 23 antagonistic bacteria were isolated, which accounted for 2.84% of the total bacteria isolated. The inhibition zone diameter was 10.12-27.56 mm. These bacteria were mainly distributed in three phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria and five genera: Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, Acinetobacter and Arthrobacter. Among the five genera, Bacillus was the most abundant genus and had relatively strong antagonistic ability. Furthermore, Bacillus siamensis had the strongest antagonistic activity, which indicated that it had great potential for biocontrol and was worth further exploration. The 23 strains isolated from the experiment had good antagonistic activity against Fusarium graminearum and had potential application value in the prevention and control of corn stalk rot.