杂优类群划分与杂优模式构建是玉米育种一项具有重要意义的基础性工作。本文系统回顾了我国西南玉米育种中热带种质利用、杂种优势群划分及杂优模式研究与应用的发展历程，并对今后的发展趋势进行了分析。四川农业大学于上世纪80年代，提出直接从热带种质选育自交系与温带种质自交系杂交，将温、热带种质的优点结合到杂交一代的西南玉米育种新思路，从Suwan-1群体中成功选育了自交系S37(苏37)，构建了“温带种质自交系×热带种质自交系”的杂优模式。在此基础上，不断总结西南玉米育种的成功经验，经过研究和发展，又提出将西南玉米育种用种质划分为Reid（瑞德）、Non-Reid（非瑞德）和Tropical(热带) 3个类群，其两两组配，可构成“Reid × Non-Reid(浅丘、河谷组配模式）、Reid×Tropical和Non-Reid×Tropical (深丘、山区组配模式）”“三角形”杂优组配模式。根据玉米产业发展需求及育种技术发展态势，本文还提出今后应进一步深入挖掘与创新利用热带种质，并逐步实现特定生态区域玉米育种母本群、父本群及杂优组配模式的相对固定。
The establishment of heterotic groups and patterns is crucial to a successful maize hybrid breeding programme. We systematically summarized the recent researches and application on heterotic groups and patterns, as well as unitization of tropical maize germplasm during maize breeding process in Southwestern China. As early as the 1980s, a novel insight that inbred lines could be directly developed from tropical maize germplasms, and hybrids could be further crossed from temperate and tropical inbred lines by incorporating their respective advantages, was firstly proposed by Sichuan Agricultural University. Under this concept, inbred line S37 (Su37) was successfully selected from the Suwan-1 tropical population, and also several popular hybrids were bred using the heterotic pattern of "temperate germplasm × tropical germplasm". Along with the successful practices in Southwest China, more experiences of maize breeding were summarized continuously. For example, the maize germplasms could be divided into three groups, namely Reid, Non-Reid and Tropical. The hybrids can be produced from a single cross using inbred selected from two of the all three groups, which was called as a "triangle" heterotic pattern. Furthermore, we found that the pattern of "Reid × Non-Reid" was more suitable for areas of shallow hills and river valley, and patterns of "Reid × Tropical" and "Non-Reid × Tropical" were more suitable for deep hills and mountains. According to the development requirements of maize industry and improvement of breeding technology, deeper exploration and innovation of tropical maize germplasms in the future is proposed in the review, which will be helpful to realize a relatively fixed pattern of maternal and paternal groups, and heterotic patterns for maize breeding in specific ecological regions.