Using molecular marker technology to divide the population of maize inbred lines and identify kinship can effectively provide technical support for cross breeding. In this experiment, 30 pairs of SSR markers with good polymorphism were used to genotype and classify 259 maize inbred lines. A total of 228 alleles variants that vary from 4 to 13 were detected in 259 inbred lines, with an average of 7.57 detected per primer pair. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.37 to 0.86, with an average of 0.69, and the average of genetic diversity index was 0.73. By UPGMA cluster analysis method, 259 maize inbred lines were divided into 5 major groups, which were named the Reid,the Lu da Red Cob,the Sipingtou,the Lancaster,the Zi 330 subgroup. The results are mainly based on the four groups of the Reid, the Lu da Red Cob, the Sipingtou and the Lancaster.The division of population was basically consistent with the genealogy. At the same time, the maize inbred lines with complicated genealogy sources were divided to clarify the belonging of the inbred lines.