To determine the characteristics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss in the dry farmland of Liaohe River plain, the field experiment was conducted to in-situ monitor the water flow and N and P loss by runoff and leaching under the different treatments from 2016 to 2017. The results showed that the runoff and leaching events mainly occurred from June to August, which was closely related to rainfall. The dissolved N and P were the main forms of N and P in the leaching and runoff water (excluding P in runoff water). N concentrations in the leaching water were higher than runoff, whereas P concentrations in the runoff water were more than leaching. N leaching loss was higher than runoff in both 2016 and 2017, while greater runoff P loss was determined in 2016 and approximately equivalent P loss by leaching and runoff these two approaches in 2017. Compared to the conventional fertilization (CF) and optimized fertilization treatment (OF), the water flow of runoff and leaching was decreased in the optimized fertilization combined with straw incorporation treatment (OFS), especially with 20.3% and 14.9% lower runoff flow in OFS than CF and OFS in 2016 (p<0.05). The average concentrations of total N, dissolved N, NO3-–N, and NH4+–N were compared among the different treatments as follow: CF>OF>OFS, while there was little difference of P concentrations among the three treatments. Compared to CF, both OF and OFS treatments reduced N and P loss, especially with 31.0% lower runoff N loss and 19.3% lower runoff P loss in OFS than CF in 2016 (p<0.05). In conclusion, N leaching were main contribution to the nutrients loss in the dry farmland of Liaohe River plain, and straw incorporation based on optimized fertilization had the potential on controlling N and P loss.