秸秆还田是提高土壤肥力，实现废弃物资源化利用的重要农业措施。还田方式和腐解菌剂会影响秸秆田间腐解率，从而影响土壤养分和玉米生长。本试验设置了3种秸秆还田方式和2种剂型腐解菌剂处理，以秸秆离田和秸秆还田无菌剂为对照。在玉米收获后测定不同处理的秸秆腐解率、土壤养分含量、单株生物量和产量。研究结果表明，旋耕和深耕还田的秸秆腐解率要显著高于浅旋还田。秸秆深耕还田相较于浅旋和旋耕还田可以显著提高0~60 cm 土壤有机质、速效钾含量和玉米产量。在施用腐解菌剂处理中，固体菌剂的秸秆腐解率高于液体菌剂，但无显著差异。在秸秆浅旋和旋耕还田方式下，施用菌剂处理的秸秆腐解率显著高于未施用菌剂处理。在秸秆深耕还田条件下，施用菌剂显著增加了玉米单株生物量。本研究结果显示，腐解菌剂对秸秆腐解和玉米生长具有一定促进作用，但在秸秆不同还田方式下腐解菌剂的应用效果存在一定差异。
Straw-returning is an important agricultural method to improve soil fertility and achieve waste utilization. The straw-returning method and microbial decomposing inoculums would affect the straw decomposition rate, and soil nutrients and maize growth. In this study, three straw-returning methods and two microbial decomposing inoculums treatments were established. And two control treatments were established. One is with straw return but without microbial inoculum, and the other one is without straw return or microbial inoculum). The straw decomposition rate, soil nutrient content, maize biomass and yield of different treatments were measured after maize harvest. The results showed that the straw decomposition rate in rotary tillage and deep tillage were higher than in moldboard plowing. Deep tillage could significant increase deep layer soil (0~60 cm) nutrient content and maize yield compared with rotary tillage and moldboard plowing. Microbial inoculum application could significantly increase straw decomposition rate in moldboard plowing and rotary tillage. And microbial inoculum could increase maize biomass in deep tillage. All results indicated that microbial decomposing inoculum could promote straw decomposition and maize growth, but the application effect was different in different straw-returning methods.