To study the effects of long-term different tillage measures on soil respiration and carbon and nitrogen changes in maize fields in the black of Northeast China, is an important issue to protect black land and ensure the sustainable development of national food security. In this study, the soil respiration rate of conventional rotary tillage(CT), high stubble row to row subsoiling-reduced tillage(RT), no-tillage(NT) and deep ploughing(PT) were compared by in-situ method on the basis of 37a different tillage system. The relationship between soil temperature and moisture, the change characteristics of soil total carbon and inorganic nitrogen, microbial carbon and nitrogen, microbial activity and root biomass were analyzed. The results showed: Under the condition of long-term cultivation, the soil respiration in the field during the growth period of spring maize presented a mono-peak dynamic change, and reached the maximum at the flowering period of maize. The average respiration rate in the growing season was RT>NT>CT>PT. There was a significant exponential relationship between soil temperature and soil respiration rate under different tillage treatments, and the soil temperature at 10cm could explain 45.2%-67.8% of soil respiration rate variation, and the variation range of Q10 is 2.1-5.3; After long-term cultivation, the carbon content of NT and RT in 0-20cm soil was significantly higher than that of other treatments, and the inorganic nitrogen content in different soil layers was significantly higher than that of CT and PT. Compared with other treatments, RT treatment has higher microbial activity and microbial carbon content in 0-20cm soil, while the root biomass is the lowest level of all tillage methods. RT treatment improves the responsiveness of soil respiration to temperature. Long-term conservation tillage RT and NT treatment can effectively increase the total carbon and nitrogen content of farmland upper soil and improve farmland soil quality. It is of great significance to promote conservation tillage as a better management measure.